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Personal Security Products Comparison

1. Types of Personal Security Products

Pepper spray is not only the most common type of self-defense spray but is also the most effective. Most pepper sprays have a range of about 10 - 12 feet and come in various shapes and sizes. Some self-defense sprays have added UV dye which helps for the suspect to be identified; others are to be used with a personal alarm. Self-defense sprays can easily be carried in a pocket, purse or on a key chain, and sometimes can be disguised in the shape of lipstick or perfume bottles. However, beware that self-defense sprays are illegal in some countries and you should be careful when importing or buying them online if you are unsure of the law surrounding them in your particular country. Stun guns are another type of personal security products and are widely used by both police officers and corrections departments to subdue dangerous criminals. However, because a large electrical shock can be transferred to the attacker, they do not rely on pain compliance and are suitable for people who may have a higher tolerance to pain. Stun guns must be in direct contact with the attacker i.e. if the person trying to attack you is holding on to your clothing; so it's not always suitable in a situation where the safety of the user needs to be ensured from a distance. Like self-defense sprays, alarms are also an ideal personal security option. There are a variety of alarms available on the market that range from panic alarms to security alarms. Panic alarms, unlike security alarms, are small and easily portable. They can be attached to a set of keys and can be carried throughout the day. Some panic alarms have additional safety features, such as a torch light or the ability to produce a loud sound; so they can be utilized in situations where the individual is left in the dark or feels threatened. However, one must be aware of the battery life of a panic alarm and whether its sound intensity is suitable for the individual's hearing abilities. On the other hand, security alarms are designed to protect a certain area or property. These alarms are operated by consuming a small wireless signal remote control or manually. Personal security alarms consist of a portable alarm unit and one or more detection units; they are designed to be used to protect a person and designed to be carried by that person.

1.1. Pepper Spray

Pepper spray is an aerosol spray that contains an active ingredient called Oleoresin Capsicum. More commonly known as OC spray, Oleoresin Capsicum is extracted from hot peppers, like cayenne, and is considered to be a “lachrymatory agent” - which means that it makes the eyes sting and produce tears. The effects of pepper spray are significant, but are completely non-lethal and not permanent. When a blast of pepper spray is directed towards the face, the recipient’s eyes will instantly slam shut as a result of involuntary blinking and they will be overcome with a feeling of intense temporary pain. This will cause their vision to blur and moisture will quickly form, impairing sight further. Additionally, they will experience excessive tears and acute discomfort in the eyes and temporary blindness may occur. Even those with their eyes tightly shut will experience a burning sensation and some level of pain across their face. In some instances, pepper spray can also cause a recipient’s nose to run and can bring on coughing, but this is usually only found in higher concentration formulas. However, it is worth noting that the effects are temporary and begin to fade after around 10 to 15 minutes. Overall, pepper spray is incredibly effective due to the fact that it acts as a versatile self-defence method and it is highly unlikely that a potential attacker will not be disabled by its effects. On the other hand, it is only a temporary solution and the user will need to make a quick retreat in order to find safety.

1.2. Stun Guns

Stun guns use high voltage and low amperage to disable an attacker for several minutes. The stun gun 101 website explains that 0.5 amps are normally enough to kill a person, but most stun guns only administer about 3.6 milliamps. That is far below the amperage that would cause serious harm or death. The website also offers detail on how a stun gun actually works. The electricity will flow between the test prongs and will produce a charge which transfers to the attacker's central nervous system. That will affect the communication of the brain to the muscles, causing disorientation and loss of balance. In effect, the messages the brain needs to send to the major muscles of the body become confused. As a result, the attacker will have nowhere near full control of his body. The site goes on to explain that the chest or the stomach area should never be continually zapped because there are vital parts of the human body that have to be protected. This is a good point to consider and will ease the minds of many people who worry that they may overdo it when they find themselves in a confrontational situation. Stun guns are so effective because they are small, easy to handle and frequently used in surprise encounters. Users of stun gun can maximum generate charge for a couple of minutes to keep an attacker subdued. A more detailed summary of these facts are found at the website. It offers an idea on how to use the stun gun, information on the durability and even details on how to clean a stun gun. I myself has never considered purchasing a stun gun as I never thought of them as a reliable, effective tool for personal protection. The research actually proved me wrong and I am now a proud owner of a stun gun and I find it a useful tool for my current job role as a female social worker. As the following text will detail, a stun gun most definitely is classed as a non-lethal product of self-defense.

1.3. Personal Alarms

Personal alarms are small, handheld devices that are designed to emit a loud, piercing sound when activated. There are several different types of personal alarms, but most either have a pin that can be pulled to activate the alarm, or a button that, when pressed, will activate the alarm. The sound that these alarms emit is incredibly loud - most are around 130 decibels - and is specifically engineered to be attention-grabbing! This means that not only will the sound potentially frighten the would-be attacker, but it is also likely to attract the attention of anyone nearby. Indeed, many people who have activated their personal alarm have reported that people from streets away have come to check that they are ok. A personal alarm can be a very effective and useful tool in helping to protect yourself from crime when out and about. However, it's important that you think carefully about the following things when deciding whether a personal alarm is the right choice for you and which of the different kinds to get; you should also take care to find out the recommended way to take care of and maintain your alarm, as well as how to ensure the best possible use of its batteries and how to keep it in good working order.

1.4. Tasers

The last four years have seen a significant reduction in the number of customer complaints related to Taser conducted energy weapons (CEWs) from the public and police users alike. Initial reports from the Home Office in the United Kingdom indicate that 59% fewer complaints have been recorded in 2011 than were recorded in 2007. The number of complaints recorded to Taser trained police officers reduce by 48% from 2007 to 2011, and there are now fewer complaints about Taser use per 1000 deployments than any other type of police use of force - only 3.6 complaints per 1000 Taser uses. The fall in complaints coincides with a 68% reduction in the number of times Taser CEWs have been focused without being fired and a 53% reduction in the number of times Taser CEWs have been fired. This strongly indicates that tactics, training and scrutiny of Taser use are working well and risks of improper uses is being reduced. Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Crime Prevention James Brokenshire said "This Home Office research shows that over the last 3 years the number of Taser related complaints per 1000 uses has fallen from 11.7 to just 3.6. It is now clear that well managed Taser use can provide public and police with a safer, more constructive working environment. This technology, which is subject to strict national policy, should only be used by competent, well trained officers, in strict compliance with the law and only where necessary." The study also shows that in the last 3 years, the number of Taser related complaints per 1000 uses has fallen from 11.7 to just 3.6. An initial report from the Independent Police Complaints Commission has been considered and published as part of this latest release and this confirms that the trend of reducing complaints is continuing. The data will continue to be assessed, and the Home Office will pursue further focused research to evaluate officer and public perspectives on Taser use.

2. Effectiveness of Personal Security Products

Now we can look at the real meat of the effectiveness of personal security products. Although the system we have focuses on using an intruder alarm, rather than monitoring a camera, D.C. based Security Info indicates that "recent advances in video technology are helping to cut down on false alarms and increasing reliance on camera systems". This is a key benefit with the progression of alarm and camera technology - as cameras get more intelligent and are more frequently monitored, law enforcement will get involved more quickly, making camera systems more popular. We wouldn't be able to monitor our security system 24/7, so I'm interested to see current figures which show that the effectiveness of camera and alarm security systems are about the same in terms of successful burglary deterrence. With response times to activated alarms in the UK averaging about 3 minutes, Karl from Senior Security Info says that "modern burglary alarms are extremely effective. This, combined with well executed escape plans, increase the desire for burglars not to draw attention by activating an alarm". The key statistics from the National Burglar and Fire Alarm Society provided by Security Info show that 60% of convicted burglars would avoid homes with alarms and the figure rises to 86% and 87% for well-developed, monitored urban areas and commercial properties respectively - suggesting that effective security systems benefit from police response as well.

2.1. Deterrent Factor

This is a new paragraph: Motion sensor lights are effective, but the majority of our members use outdoor security cameras as a deterrent to trespassers. Criminals are less likely to break in to vehicles or homes when they can visually see the camera. Smart security signs and stickers act in a similar way, with sixty-eight percent of police officers stating that a home with security signs is less appealing to them. My personal experience also points to outdoor security cameras as the best way to deter someone from breaking the law. For example, a man was caught on camera trying to break into my roommate’s vehicle at 2am in the morning. The bright, motion sensor camera light immediately turned on and captured both the man and his face as clear as day on the video recording. It’s safe to say the man quickly left our driveway without stealing anything once he learned there was a camera recording his actions!

2.2. Ease of Use

Considering that the main aim of buying a personal security device is to protect yourself, you will want a gadget that can be called upon even in urgent situations. That is why many buyers will often choose products which have easy-to-locate buttons. Apart from that, perfect products according to ones like the best pepper spray are also likely to need zero or no special knowledge to trigger the device. Ease to use is what determines how helpful a personal security product can be at any one given point. If it were a car security device or a set of security cameras, you would always want something that will not give you a headache whenever you want to work with the footage and this explains why such brands like the high end infinitiKloud have the ease of use aspects as a strong selling point. On the same note, the best pepper spray or any other personal security product should be one which needs no special knowledge to apply. Ease of use on the part of the parents or guardians is a great advantage when it comes to selecting a good personal security product for children. Of course many of them will need or have to be there to provide assistance and in such a case, the parent should be able to use the device effectively. When you would like to review information regarding the benefits, components and examples of peer to peer network, it is always good to visit relevant websites for meaningful insights. Ease of use is also very crucial when selecting the best personal security products for the elderly. Such kind of persons may have health conditions which require immediate intervention in times of emergencies and therefore the features and applications in the products should be easy to master and manage. The same case applies to the best lumbar support products; the installation, ergonomic designs and the ease to adjust plays a critical role when it comes to the suitability of the product for the seniors. Well, unless you want to feel like a fool shouting at an alarm that cannot respond, usability of the best personal security gadgets should be a primary concern. This is how you can improve your personal security other than just having the device. People's daily experience can differ and as such, there can never be a single advice that can be called absolute. However, the following handy tips can help you to look out for informative and reputable resources on the Internet where more advice is offered, click here for dog care and browse through tips on how to make your dog feel more secure, how to minimize anxieties in puppies and where to find guides on the best dog care practices. Ease of use only goes as far as to offer a clue what steps should involve proper self-care. Also, as many consumers would prefer ease of use as a reason why product A should be chosen over B, it can also be helpful when shopping on a budget. If budget is a limiting factor, yet you have information technology degree, it may be much more rewarding to statistically evaluate manufacturer, consumer and professional reviews and determine how satisfied different users were on the usability of the products than to just base the search on ease of use alone.

2.3. Range of Protection

Some of the responses mention issues connected to the protectability of the personal protection devices. It’s undeniable that the technology in use plays a critical role. Take the example of an electronic security alarm. If the alarm relies on the technology that’s out of date, it’s apparent that the range of protection will be limited. On the other side, if the alarm is built to adapt and upscale with the changing technology like a smart home alarm, it’s believed to offer a better range of protection. There are numerous reports of false alarms especially in the cases of neighborhood watch and bicycle faraday alarms. The current devices seem to lack the intelligence and flexibility to filter false alarms. This effectually means that the devices have not just limited the range of protection – they’ve created general apathy and disillusionment towards the devices. Devices such as an electronic and secure perimeter protections rely on underground wiring that emits low grade signals of electromagnetic energy. Such signals are supposed to create monitored zones or fields around a building or controlled area. The field has different detectors all interlinked to a central control device. The detectors can be set to differentiate between low risk and high risk zone breaches. The report mentions that the use of the devices has been limited by the lack of clear evidence proving increased protectability as a result of installing the devices. Publicity plays a very crucial role in the effectiveness of the devices. For example, bike faraday alarms tend to be overlooked if listed as a means to protect and or recover stolen pedal cycles. However other reports have also questioned the efficiency. For faraday alarms, it’s suggested that members of the public should have been warned that the devices have limited protectability. The argument on publicity, its influence on fear of crime and associated psychological satisfaction are heavily rooted in the theories of new public management and exclusionary behaviors. The critical success aspects of the personal protection devices were discussed in detail. None of the reported studies mentioned protectability as a success factor. This is from the assumption that protectability is a given- you’d only want to use and purchase a personal protection device if it’s efficient in offering the security it promises. Personal protection devices are supposed to give residents the peace of mind and an increased sense of security. However, a number of discourses allude to issues of exclusion where the more affluent residents may be outside, while the poor contemplating on increasing their feelings of safety within residential care premises.

3. Legal Considerations

Any discussion of self-defense products sold in the United States must begin with legal considerations. Different states have different laws and regulations about what types of personal security products, such as pepper spray and stun guns, can be sold and possessed. For example, in New York, it is against the law for anyone who is not a member of the New York Police Department to possess pepper spray. It is also illegal to sell pepper spray online, although, uptown, many vendors still sell it. In Michigan, it is a felony for a civilian to possess a stun gun. In Massachusetts, stun guns must be purchased from a “licensed dealer” and customers must be provided with a receipt “for the weapon” in order to complete the purchase. Furthermore, criminal charges can be filed against anyone who has been found to tamper with the serial number on a stun gun. In Massachusetts, this is a criminal act as well as an action that would void the manufacturer’s warranty. Be sure to check the laws in your specific state regarding pepper spray and stun guns. Many states have restrictions by the weights of the legal chemical content of the spray you can carry. The majority of states permit you to carry up to 2.5 ounces of the spray, with a few states permitting up to 3.0 ounces. However, there are some states which do not permit you to carry pepper spray in quantities over 1.0 ounces. As for states, permits and/or licenses are required in order to carry pepper spray or stun guns. In Virginia, anyone wishing to purchase stored tear gas must first perform a background check and obtain a permit. In Texas, it is unlawful for a person to possess a “stungun, taser, or other weapon of a similar nature”, unless that person is 18 years of age and possesses a valid “license issued under this subchapter.” In Mississippi, persons must apply for and obtain an “endorsement to the firearms permit” to legally carry a stun gun. The endorsement costs an additional $25 and applicants are required to complete a “stun gun endorsement training program” certified by the state before being issued the endorsement. By contrast, Nebraska permits the purchase, possession, and carrying of a “self-defense chemical spray” without the need for a permit or license of any kind. Different from other states, Nebraska does not restrict by age the purchase of “self-defense chemical spray.”

3.1. Restrictions by State

3. Legal considerations Whether a taser, stun gun, or pepper spray, every personal security product has its own set of restrictions varying across the United States. Before making a purchase, it is integral to understand the state laws to ensure the product is legal. The following is a discussion on some state regulations and how they might affect ownership and use of the taser, stun gun, or pepper spray accordingly. Also discussed are some of the federal laws that cover these products. In states like California, Connecticut, Delaware, and District of Columbia among other states, there are specific restrictions for the type of personal security product such as the pepper spray. Safe to say however, every state has its own set of regulations that one must adhere to before legally owning and using these products in that particular state.

3.2. Permits and Licenses

The sale of personal security products is regulated by the federal government and sometimes by state, county and municipal laws as well. There are different permits and licenses required for the manufacture, distribution, retailing and individual selling of such products. For pepper sprays and maces, no federal regulations exist and they are relatively simple products to make and sell. However, many states and localities have their own restrictions, so the industry has developed a number of different state and local licenses and permits for those involved in the sale of pepper spray products. The license information for each state is provided to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and can be found on their site. On the other hand, for a permit to carry a concealed gun, a more serious federal license is required. This is because a concealed weapon is under stricter federal regulations and additional background checks are necessary. However, the procedure for gaining a license to carry a concealed weapon varies from state to state so careful research is needed. The manufacturers and the agents who represent the manufacturers must register with the relevant state law enforcement agency in order to sell electronic stun guns and tasers at wholesale. These sellers require a 5-year license in the form of a 'CEW Retail Dealer' and this permit allows the holder to possess, use or purchase tasers and stun guns to be used as samples for law enforcement instruction or for public awareness programs. However, without a federal 'Consumer' license, these traders may not sell the products at retail. Similar to pepper sprays, it is illegal for any non-resident to carry a concealed firearm in any public place. For those who wish to carry a concealed weapon which is not a chemical dispensing device such as pepper spray, then states like Florida, Louisiana and Michigan require a federal 'non-resident' license to be obtained. This is called the 'Utah Concealed Firearm Permit'. People investigating these opportunities often look for reputable institutions and experts who can provide effective training in the use of these products. Every state and the local jurisdiction has its own specific requirements for permits and licenses, as well as required fees.

4. Cost Comparison

This method of estimating the cost of ownership uses the initial investment and the expected life of the system to arrive at an amount per year dollars. The first step is to develop a chart that compares the initial cost of various systems with a creating an ongoing cost for each year of its expected life. Then that amount is added to the next year's amount to account for inflation or lost investment opportunities. For example, a $400 camera with a five year life would cost the converter. The sum of $117.00 for the fifth year of ownership and $85.00 for the tenth year of ownership. By using this method, I have concluded that of the sample group, the night activated camera costs the least associated with an initial investment and about a dollar a day to operate. The camera would take 302 days to earn this amount but most people using the systems would be using it for the full five months. The internet system had the second lowest cost although the initial investment was substantially higher, its alive a bid that was required and this cost offset by potential privacy risks that were not considered in this analysis. Lastly, the light activated camera, despite being a cheap initial investment, had the highest cost over time. In fact, the ongoing cost associated with the light activated camera is about 50% higher than the next system, which is about 150% higher than the next system, the internet camera. So, although costs only take up a third of the selection process, the night act camera is a clear choice if cost is the main concern. It has a reasonable initial investment compared to other serious options and good value for ongoing maintenance. The internet camera is suitable for those willing to make a higher initial investment with minimal privacy risks from the neighbors. Lastly, the light activated camera is not a cost-effective option to justify the lower security capabilities and the highest ongoing costs among all considered systems.

4.1. Initial Investment

Almost without exception, a security survey of any description that has been conducted by a competent company utilizing experienced surveyors and using the latest technology is likely to have a high initial cost attached to it. This is because the more sophisticated the equipment employed and the more experienced and qualified the surveyor the higher the cost is likely to be. This is because such surveys will generally involve the use of sophisticated detection equipment that can be used to verify the presence of bugs and other electronic listening devices. Such equipment is not cheap and as a result this cost is likely to be passed on to the client through a higher initial survey fee. However, it will enable clients to have the peace of mind that their surveys have been both comprehensive in scope and thorough in nature because the latest technology has been employed. Also, the provision of post-sweep certification can often reduce the chances of misunderstanding and improve relationships with third parties. Such certification demonstrates that due diligence has been taken to verify the absence of electronic eavesdropping equipment in the areas concerned, and such steps are also likely to be highly regarded by senior management from a risk management perspective. On the other hand, personal technical surveillance countermeasures surveys and simple physical countermeasures surveys may not require the use of specialized equipment for detecting the presence of listening devices. In such cases, using a relevant member of the Institute of Professional Investigators may be sufficient as a reputable and competent surveyor. This means that a client will generally see a lower initial cost of a security survey of any description of this kind.

4.2. Maintenance Costs

The figure below shows a summary of the maintenance cost of each personal security product as discussed by the three selected participants. Maintenance costs encompassed both regular maintenance costs and extra maintenance costs such as technological improvements and replacements. The maintenance cost of a personal security product is an important factor to consider when making a decision on the best product given an individual’s budget and cost effectiveness. Analysis of findings shows that Ring Video Doorbell had the highest regular maintenance cost followed closely by the iSmartAlarm. However, the Ring Video Doorbell showed the least extra maintenance cost of the three products. On the other hand, the Z-Modo CCTV had the lowest regular maintenance cost, and the iSmartAlarm had no extra maintenance cost. This could explain why the three participants reported that the Ring Video Doorbell was the most expensive product in terms of maintenance. Firstly, the cost was incurred more regularly compared to the other products and secondly the extra maintenance costs of the product were higher. This cost effectiveness analysis is surprising considering the fact that the initial investment cost of the Ring Video Doorbell and the Z-Modo CCTV were similar. The initial cost of the iSmartAlarm is higher than that of the other two products. The maintenance cost of the three products over a period of ten years is: Ring Video Doorbell at $2280, iSmartAlarm at $1576 and the Z-Modo CCTV at $1436. This information is very helpful for an individual consumer who wishes to budget for the recurring costs of a personal security product, taking into account not only the regular costs but also the extra maintenance costs. It is also interesting that the product with the highest initial investment cost, the iSmartAlarm, showed the least maintenance cost. This suggests that the cost per use of the product is lowest amongst the three products. However that may be, iSmartAlarm cannot be hailed as the most cost effective personal security product given that it’s initial cost is considerably higher than the other products.

5. Portability and Convenience

The second evaluation criterion for the three personal security products is portability and convenience. We measured and compared the size and weight of each product. The first item is the personal alarm. It has a length of 3 inches, a height of 2 inches, and a thickness of 1 inch. The alarm is powered with a 9V battery, and the battery cover is secured by a small Philips head screw. Besides, the weight of the alarm is 0.13 lb. A potential drawback of the personal alarm is that it is meant to be hung on a bag or a backpack, but not something one can fit in a pocket. The second item is the portable pepper spray. Comparing with the personal alarm, the portable pepper spray has a bigger size. The pepper spray is a flip-top design and canister, nozzle, actuator, and housing are required to be assembled. The length of the pepper spray is 4 inches, and the diameter of the canister is 1 inch. Besides, the weight of the pepper spray is 0.28 lb. Because of the larger size, the pepper spray can be conveniently held and hidden in the pocket. The last item is the retractable stun baton. It can be extended to 21 inches for self-defense and retracted down to 13 inches for carrying. The diameter of the stun baton is 1.5 inches. Also, there is an LED flashlight built-in. The stun baton has a weight of 1.63 lb. It is the heaviest personal security product among the three. Comparing the three products, the personal alarm is the smallest and lightest while the portable pepper spray is the biggest and the heaviest. I will collect survey and retail price information for the marketing materials. The marketing of a company's products will inevitably affect the sales of the company. It is because good marketing strategies will promote more sales and thus greater revenue. The objective of this criterion is to evaluate the weights and effectiveness of the different marketing materials for the three products. First, we used the personal alarm and tested on the marketing material. Starting off, we analyzed and evaluated the different price ranges for the personal alarm for five different pieces. We recorded the basic description of the position of the alarm on the marketing material and the reasons given for choosing the product. It shows that out of the five different pieces of marketing materials, the criteria of color choice, price, and loudness volume of the alarm are often used. This means that the marketing team has done a good job in highlighting the outstanding features of the alarm such as the alarm color which gives the customer a wide range of options on which to make a selection on, the alarm volume that is.

5.1. Size and Weight

It is very relevant to examine the size and weight of each of the three personal security devices since these are made to be with the person at all times. The manufacturer information charts indicate that the thumb pepper spray is the most heavy and has the biggest size followed by the Lipstick pepper spray while the pen pepper spray has the smallest size and weight. According to statistics from the manufacturer information charts, the thumb pepper spray which is designed in such a way to be worn on the hand as a glove weighs 0.75 oz. and has a canister with a weight of 0.5 oz and a volume of about 11 grams. When it comes to size, the thumb pepper spray is a little bit bigger measuring 1.5 inches in width and about 3 inches in height, therefore it might feel a little cumbersome to carry. The information of the Lipstick pepper spray indicates that it weighs 0.5 oz and has a volume and canister weight of 14 grams and 0.5 oz respectively. In terms of size, the information from the manufacturer information charts indicated that the Lipstick pepper spray has a height of 3.75 inches and a diameter of about 0.875 inches. This makes the Lipstick pepper spray the smallest and second lightest as per the details provided. On the other hand, the pen pepper spray appears to be the most convenient in terms of size and weight. With a net weight of 0.25 oz, a canister capacity of 0.5 oz and a volume of 14 grams, it is very compact unlike the thumb and Lipstick pepper sprays. Also, its size is just right with dimensions of 3.75 inches for the length (same length as the Lipstick pepper spray), a width of 0.5 inches and a height of 0.5 inches.

5.2. Accessibility in Emergency Situations

The accessibility of a personal security device in emergency situations is crucial. Most victims of attacks suffer from the incapability of accessing their personal security mechanisms such as whistles, sprays and other tools. The report of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) on the evaluation of personal security devices based on the needs of crime and violence victims stresses the significance of the practicality and accessibility of personal security products in emergencies. It involved a study where different products were subjected to stimulation of emergencies to gauge how long and effectively victims can use the tools. The evaluation was based on the literature analysis, input comments and views from different focus groups of various classes of victims of crimes, surveys, expert opinion and actual stimulation of emergencies. From the study, it was established that the personal safety whistles are the most accessible in the midst of all form of emergencies. This is because they do not require a victim to have a high degree of fine or complex motor skills to produce the distress call. The whistle provides a constant sound that does not waiver like in the case of calling for help through voice. In fact, the study comprised of the people with seeing and hearing impairments and from a general perspective, all the victims that participated in the stimulation were able to use the whistle effectively within the stipulated time lines of any form of emergency. The feedback from the victims was profoundly used as a focal point of designing and production of the best type of the whistle that is effective for all victims. On the other hand, some products like the common pepper spray were judged to have both practicality and legal barriers that limit their overall accessibility and effectiveness in emergencies. The victims and the research opinions questioned the potential effectiveness of the pepper spray to different form of emergencies. For example, different people were of the opinion that the spray can be blocked by wind or weather and in most case, the user has to have a direct aim to the attacker's face which make it difficult to deploy under quick emergencies in real situation.

6. User Training and Education

In addition to making a purchasing decision between the OC pepper spray and the stun gun, it is important to receive training from its use. In Colorado, where the OC pepper spray is for sale, there are specific statutes addressing whether a person has to go through training on the use of the device or not. In the state, a person is not required to receive any kind of training in order to carry the OC pepper spray. However, individuals are required to use the spray only in situations where they reasonably believe it is necessary to prevent an attack, and such use must be consistent with the applicable law. Given that no person is required to received training, majority of people purchase and start using this self-defense product almost immediately. However, a rational person would take advantage of free training programs offered by agencies such as Arapahoe Country Sheriff’s Office. User training and education impacts directly on the technical knowhow of how to handle the OC pepper spray as well as the right thing to do in case you use it. For instance, according to a reputable website, one of the most important training aspects raised during a training simulation is that users should aim for the eyes of the attacker and spray two to three one-second bursts. This is contrary to what the public generally know that you just have to spray the whole contents to anybody on the path. With this kind of well-informed and savvy users, the chances of using the OC pepper spray effectively and accurately become high. On the other hand, the website stresses that a failure to take the formal training into account and improving user knowledge of the OC pepper spray may mean negative implication in legal proceedings. Thank you for using a detailed structure in comparing personal security products and exploring the relevant statutes on the choice of each product. By the end of the text, we have seen how the statutes impact on the choice of a suitable personal security product – self-defense spray or stun gun.

6.1. Proper Handling Techniques

This section gives a brief overview of some of the specific proper techniques that an officer should use in handling and firing a firearm. First, and quite obviously, a firearm should never be pointed at any person unless deadly force is required. Discharging a firearm should be strictly avoided unless absolutely necessary; however, a weapon should always be handled as if it is loaded, and never pointed in a direction that would be dangerous if the weapon were to discharge. Also prohibiting firing at a location or object, and always being aware of the backdrop in case a round misses or penetrates the intended target, should be common sense to a trained officer. One should not assume that a security officer knows the proper way to hold or handle a weapon. In order to prevent injury or even death, it’s absolutely necessary that a certified instructor observe the trainee while handling and firing a weapon. With the vast variety of firearms and handguns available for use, a trainee may be required to take a course for each type of weapon. Well-designed range and weapons training should include all of the following elements: handling the weapon, correct firing stances, breathing techniques, trigger control, follow through on shots, and proper clearing and securing of the weapon after use. The human factor, taking into account such psychological effects of a potentially lethal engagement, is an important feature of this book’s approach to the firearms component of security personnel training. This approach recognizes the necessity of proper psychological training to develop a correct mind set in approaching a threatening situation. The book stipulates that weapons and tactics training should fully comply with the content of the Manual of Guidance on Public Order Laws, which is published by the Association of Chief Police Officers. This manual contains a model syllabus for police advanced officer safety training and is therefore directly relevant. Finally, it is suggested that the training, knowledge and experience requirements for security personnel should be reviewed and placed on a statutory footing. This would bring the requirements in line with the private investigators currently.

6.2. Understanding Legal Ramifications

Since the personal defense tool industry is strictly regulated, understanding the legal ramifications of using and especially deploying a personal protection device is critical. Possessing an in-depth legal knowledge is beneficial, but a good working knowledge of the laws is crucial. When an individual makes the decision to arm themselves with any non-lethal self defense device, there is a large amount of responsibility that the user is willing to accept. Users of personal security devices often find themselves trying to keep up with the latest developments in the laws of each state, a task that is daunting for even the most highly-educated among us. For example, the states of Washington, North Dakota, and Wisconsin completely ban the use of pepper spray as a defense against bears. However, only the states of Washington and Wisconsin restrict the sale or own of the personal protection devices to criminal justice workers and private investigators who are properly licensed in their respective states. In comparison, the laws of confiscation upon violation are much stricter in Wisconsin than they are in Washington. Wisconsin laws also specify that the spray containers must carry labels that explain the federal regulations on labeling and the standards for immediate decontamination. However, the employment of devices for self defense outside of the home or the person is regulated by more general state law regarding the legal use of force in defending one's self. Both Wisconsin and Washington balance the use of non-lethal self defense devices against a majority of non-aggressor adults; and the employment against "peaceable, non-aggressor persons" is illegal except to prevent forcible felonies as is defined within the state criminal code or similarly titled state laws. Any use of a prohibited personal protection device such as a stun-gun or taser can carry heavy penalties under state law. In Wisconsin, a violation for a non-resident or a person ineligible to carry an explosive incapacitant is a misdemeanor or felony resulting in a maximum 3 and a half years of imprisonment and a fine up to $10,000. Plus, if the violation includes the individual's prior conviction of crime, the penalties are intensified to a class H felony resulting in a fine up to $10,000 and up to 6 years of imprisonment. These laws exist to balance the risks and restrictions on accepted self defense with the need to minimize unwarranted injury due to abuses of non-lethal personal protection devices. The aforementioned example demonstrates how violation of legal standards with the use or deployment of personal protection devices can lead to severe penalties, helping to ensure proper safety in any given community.

7. Brand Reputation and Customer Reviews

The reputation of the brand can be as important as the qualities of the product itself or even more. It is always great to spend money on something with a brand that is reliable and famous among the public. However, it is important to know what counts as a reliable brand. For example, a well-known security brand is a reliable one while a well-known clothing name may be not. Customer feedback is very important in today’s market. They not only help the brands improve their products and services, but also provide guides for other customers who are seeking the same or similar products to make smart choices. Generally speaking, this is a good habit to check both the positive and negative feedback on a certain product. Positive feedback is indicative of good product reliability. However, a large amount of positive feedback and less negative feedback would be more ideal. Also, feedback which is more specific about the functions of a product can be more useful for consumers too. On top of that, nowadays, comment section products on trusted online suppliers such as Amazon, eBay, Walmart, or even Facebook, also the feedback column in price comparison websites, can be turned to for user feedback and reviews. Also, feedback from professionals can be used to predict the reliability of a certain product. Not only the comments from users, additional information like awards and recommendations from professionals are also important in judging the security products. Nevertheless, with the advancements of the technology, modern devices and electronics of all kinds are more and more connected to the internet, forming the Internet of Things. As a rising trend of technology, software now always needs to be updated and so are the security products. Well-known manufacturers will continue to support updates to software and firmware for years to come and that is what makes their products more proper and reliable. In the Security Market and all its dynamics, it is important for users to keep up-to-date with the newest trends. This is because reliability of brands and feedback from the users might change as technology advances. By looking at the present market, the feedback and brand reliability, hopefully it can serve as a good guide for choosing the most reliable security product that suits for most people in nowadays.

7.1. Trustworthiness of Brands

Thinking of the key companies within the private safety world, it's clear that a lot of them have been round for a very long time and are well-known all through the business. We can go off the idea that the older the company is and the more well-known they are, the more likely their merchandise will likely be reliable as a consequence of their lengthy-standing reputation. This is as a result of so as for a corporation to be around for a very long time, their products should have remained reliable and kept up with the newest security technological advancements. Moreover, such companies usually have a rigorous quality assurance testing phase, which means that any products launched onto the market will have already been tested for reliability and software. Some newcomers in the industry refer to ‘disruptive' expertise, which means that they may use more modern methods of safety, together with software and know-how integration; examples being Ring and Nest. However, it could possibly be argued that merchandise from these corporations are a chance to buy because of their recent releases and the fact they might not have a stable supporter buyer base yet. As such, rivals to these newly founded corporations will in all probability have a much greater effectivity and reliability rate.

7.2. Feedback from Users

Next to the official reports and published experts’ reviews on residential security systems on the top positions, they also take into account the feedback left by the real users. Of course, the analysis presented in the section was more scientific and systematic than this part focuses on. However, scholars also greatly appreciated the value from real consumer’s perspective. By referring to the comments and negative feedback that we mentioned, the analysis established the causation between the certain flaws and the deteriorating of the brand making share on the market. For example, in my work, the researcher stated that it is generally accepted that what might impact prosumers’ trust in a brand includes the result of their assessments on the capability indexes. Such assessments had an important impact on the industry development. One comparative studies quote the reports from prosumers exploring whether the smart household appliance brands might minimize their harmful impacts to the environment. The speculation and the findings in the research paper have suggested that the environmentally friendly brands will have a competitive edge in the market and its reputation on the environmental friendly approach could be maintained by the related marketing strategies based on the finding. Interesting!

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